麻疹 is a viral infection that begins with a fever that lasts for several days, 接着是咳嗽, 流鼻涕, 结膜炎(红眼). 的 rash starts on the face and upper neck, 在背部和躯干上展开, and then extends to the extremities (arms and legs) to include the hands and feet. After about 5 days the rash then fades in the same order it appeared.
That all sounds fairly benign, so why should we worry about the 麻疹?
- 1:4 =需要住院治疗
- 1: 1000 = Get encephalitis(inflammation of the brain)
- 1 or 2: 1000 = Will die from this illness either from pneumonia or encephalitis
- Pregnant Unvaccinated Women or Women who’s antibodies to the 疫苗 are no longer protective= are at risk if they acquire 麻疹 因为流产, 死胎, 早产, or Congenital Rubella Syndrome which consists of heart problems, 头小畸型(小), 听力和视力问题, 学习问题, 这样的例子不胜枚举.
是如何 麻疹 传播?
- 一个人的 麻疹 is contagious for 4 days before developing symptoms and remains contagious until 4 days after symptoms evolve.
- 的 麻疹 virus lives in the mucous of the nose and throat, and is 传播 when people sneeze or cough.
- Droplets from coughing enter the air and can contaminate a space for up to 2 hours after person leaves
- Incubation period(time from exposure to dev of disease) is 7-21 days.
Memphis had 3 distinct outbreaks and now 7 confirmed cases. 的 cases were not related to foreign travel and the health department could find no relationship between the outbreaks but are still investigating.
那么 麻疹 疫苗!
- Introduced in 1963, and is combined with Mumps and Rubella to give the MMR (麻疹腮腺炎和风疹)疫苗. In 2000, 麻疹 was felt to be eliminated in the United States, but there are still pockets of disease secondary to people traveling outside of the US and bringing it home or in populations which opt out of 疫苗s.
- 没有科学证据表明 麻疹 疫苗 causes Autism, and the 疫苗 does not contain mercury. 的 fear of both of these things has caused families to not vaccinate.
- 91年在全国范围内,.9% of children between 19-35 months of age have had at least one MMR 疫苗 as of 2013. 然而，阿肯色州的数字是88.3% for the country (near the bottom but not the worst). 这些数据中最可悲的部分, is that our state is at the very bottom of the list for this age group having received all of its 疫苗s at 57% (means only 57% of kids in Arkansas between 19-35 months of age are completely immunized).
- At present the recommendations are that children receive 2 doses of the MMR 疫苗. 的 first dose to be given between 12-15 months of age, and this would protect 93% of those exposed from getting 麻疹. 的 second dose normally is given between 4-6 years of age,with entrance to school and raises the protection level to 97%(this means if you were exposed to 麻疹 you should be protected against not getting it 97% of the time). If the health department deems necessary, they will change timing of second 疫苗 and request it to be given 28 days after first.
- Those less then 5 yrs of age are the one of the most susceptible groups, either because they are too young to vaccinate or have not gotten their second dose of the 疫苗.
What about babies who aren’t vaccinated because they are too young?
Babies get passive immunity from their mothers (antibodies pass through the placenta), but no one is quite sure how long these last for. 因此，这个年龄段的人非常危险.
What other groups can’t receive the 疫苗?
孕妇, those on steroids and other immunosuppressive medicines can not receive the MMR 疫苗. This includes those individuals who have undergone transplants or are bring treated for cancer.
So the major take home point is that we need to get our children immunized with the MMR 疫苗 to protect them, but also to protect those in the community who are too young, 怀孕了, or unable to be vaccinated for other medical reasons. Stay informed by checking your local news and visiting our website for updates.